50 Ways to Flail
Tagged in: Aid and Big Walls, Alpine Climbing, Beginners, Bouldering, Ice Climbing, Knots, Sport Climbing, Trad Climbing
by Laura Snider
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Common climber mistakes and how to avoid them
I’ve been climbing for more than 15 years, and the mistakes I’ve made cover the gamut. My knot came partly untied while I was climbing at Joshua Tree; I’ve threaded my belay device backward; partway up El Capitan, my partner once completely unclipped me from a belay. Worst, I dropped a dear friend while lowering him off a sport climb in Rifle with a too-short rope. (Fortunately, he wasn’t seriously injured.) If you’re lucky, like I’ve been, your mistakes result in close calls that help keep you vigilant. If you’re not, the results can be tragic.
1. Not double-checking your belay and knots
Trad climbers wear helmets much more often than sport climbers, but why? You can deck, slam the wall, or flip upside down in sport climbing, and loose rock is always a hazard. Evaluate all the risks before you make a fashion-based decision not to protect your head.
3. More confidence than competence
Push yourself to become a better climber, but understand the risks and assess your ability to mitigate them. The American Alpine Club rates “exceeding abilities” as one of the top causes of accidents.
4. Careless belaying
There are many ways to screw up when belaying. In multi-pitch climbing, slack in your tie-in or an unreliable redirect piece can result in dangerous shock loads. When belaying on the ground, taking your brake hand off the rope (even with an assisted braking device) can quickly lead to a dangerous fall. Another common mistake is standing too far away from the cliff when lead belaying— it’s easy to get dragged across the ground when the climber falls. A big loop of slack lying in the dirt is the lazy, incorrect way to give a “soft catch” belay. Finally, save the crag chat until your climber is safely back on the ground.
5. Failing to knot the end of the rope
You can endlessly debate how to equalize a three-piece anchor, but it’s more common to get seriously hurt being lowered on a sport climb than having an anchor fail on a trad route. If you’re belaying a single-pitch route, tie a knot in the end of the rope, tie it to the rope bag, or tie it yourself. Do it out of habit, not just when you think the rope might not reach. Knotting the end of the ropes is equally important when rappelling. Slipping off the ends of rappel ropes is tragically common, even among very experienced climbers.
REAL LIFE: In 2007, Lara Kellog, an experienced mountaineer, rappelled off the end of her rope while retreating from the Northeast Buttress of Mt. Wake in Alaska’s Ruth Gorge. She was killed after falling about 1,000 feet.
SPORT CLIMBING MISTAKES
6. Rope behind your leg while leading
It’s possible for bolts to fail. It’s very possible for old bolts to fail. Be wary of any rusted or corroded bolts, especially at seaside crags; saltwater breezes are very caustic to climbing hardware. A 2009 report by the UIAA showed that 10 to 20 percent of bolts in tropical marine climbing destinations would fail if a fall generated a force of 1,125 pounds. (A “hard” lead fall may generate 2,600 pounds of force.) Similarly, some old-school bolts from the 1980s or earlier will still hold falls, but many won’t. Finally, give a second look to homemade hangers, which can develop hairline fractures where they bend. When in doubt, find a safe way to escape and choose a route with better hardware.
13. Standing in the drop zone
Rocks frequently fall from the tops of cliffs, especially during spring runoff or rain showers. Find sheltered belay spots if possible, and locate your hangout areas well away from vertical or slabby cliffs, or close underneath overhangs.
14. Toproping through fixed anchors
The sand and dirt in ropes can wear through metal, and repeated toproping or lowering through the rings or chains on a sport climb ruins the hardware. Always toprope through your own quickdraws, and lower through the fixed hardware only once, when you’re done with the route. Even better, rappel instead of lowering unless the route is too overhanging or wandering to safely clean it while rappelling. Never assume, however, that your partner will rappel instead of lower (see No. 7). This mistake causes many serious accidents!
15. Spraying beta
It’s awesome that you sent that climb using the tiny foot chip with your left foot and gastoning the sidepull with your right hand. But keep it to yourself. While no one has ever died after being sprayed down with beta (that we know of), your big mouth could blow someone’s onsight attempt or just ruin the peace and quiet some climbers prefer.
16. Letting your dog run free
Your dog deserves to enjoy the great outdoors with you—emphasis on with you. Dogs running free, trampling ropes, and begging for food negatively impact many climbers’ experience. Please control your beast.
DO: Focus on the task at hand until it’s done. Once you start putting on your harness, finish putting it on, doubled back. If someone starts talking to you after you begin tying your knot, finish the knot before conversing. Completion before distraction!
TRAD CLIMBING MISTAKES
17. Trusting all fixed slings
That fistful of skinny sewn slings may save weight, but they’re not your first choice for leaving behind as rappel anchors when you have to bail. A tiedwebbing runner is easy to un-knot for threading through a hole, tying around a tree, or adjusting anchor length for equalization. With a sewn sling, you may have to cut the webbing to build your anchor (you did clip a lightweight belay knife to the back of your harness, right?), and it’s tough to tie those slick-as snot suckers back together. Keep a couple of tied slings on your rack, just in case.
24. Lowering directly off webbing
Never run a piece of moving nylon (your rope, for example) through a sling without putting a carabiner or metal ring between the two—the sling can burn in seconds under a taut, moving rope. Rappelling directly off slings always is perilous; if the rope slips—due to unequal tension on different-diameter ropes, for example—it can cut the sling. Improve such anchors with a quick link or a carabiner taped closed.
25. Forgetting the nut tool
Leaving behind gear on a pitch is an expensive bummer.
26. Forgetting your headlamp
Even if you don’t think you’ll need a headlamp, stick one in a pocket or clip it to the back of your harness for long climbs. A light can make the difference between a cold, thirsty bivy and a pleasant evening hike back to camp.
27. Wearing a backpack in a chimney
Many classic lines, such as Epinephrine at Red Rock, Nevada, or the Steck-Salathé in Yosemite Valley, have long chimney sections. If you hope to have any fun squeezing up the slots, don’t wear a pack full of water and energy bars. If you must carry a pack, hang it by a sling from your belay loop as you climb short chimney sections.
DO: Back-clean when needed. If you notice that you’ve created heinous rope drag with your first few placements (sometimes unavoidable if you want to protect the climbing), place a couple of pieces of solid gear and down-climb or lower to remove the troublesome gear. If you try to fight it, the drag will only get worse. You may not be able to reach a belay, or be able to pull up the rope to properly belay your second. You’ll save time and frustration if you fix the problem early.
28. Lame spotting
Nothing is worse than manteling out the final moves on your highball boulder project (nice send), only to realize you don’t know how to get down—it’s possible that you just climbed the easiest route to the top. Scout the descent before your ascent.
30. Climbing with dirt on your shoes
Dirty shoes don’t stick well, and they grind grit into the footholds and polish them. Wipe your shoes clean before you start, and step directly from your pad or a nearby rock onto the problem.
31. Leaving tick marks
Many climbers mark hand or footholds with a bit of chalk—sometimes with a big, ugly line. If you prefer to climb with this kind of visual aid, fine, but make sure you brush off your graffiti before you leave.
ICE CLIMBING MISTAKES
It’s tempting to place screws as high as possible, and if you’re standing on a ledge, it’s no problem. But when you’re leading steep, pumpy ice, place the screw at chest level, where you can generate maximum leverage to drive in the screw quickly and efficiently.
37. Not wearing eye protection
There’s nothing like an adze or ice shard to the eyeball to really darken your day. Wear sunglasses, goggles, or a face shield.
38. Ignoring avalanche conditions
Ice climbs often form in or below gullies that can funnel snow and make for high avalanche hazard, and the approaches and descents to climbs also may be avy zones. Check whether your climb is in avalanche terrain, and evaluate conditions locally before you head out.
REAL LIFE: In 2009, ice climbing icon Guy Lacelle was killed after finishing an ice route in Hyalite Canyon, Montana. Lacelle was apparently resting at the top of the climb when a party above him triggered an avalanche, which swept him back down the cliff.
DO: Dry and sharpen your tools and crampons after every outing. The hard steel of crampon points and ice-tool picks will rust if left in your pack while damp. Take them out, dry them, and tune the edges with a few strokes of a file. (It’s a lot easier to maintain an edge than it is to create a new edge on a dull pick.) Finish with a once-over witha lightly oiled cloth for rust resistance.
39. Not acclimatizing
Roping up while moving together on steep, snowy terrain is often a good idea—but not always. If you don’t have pickets, ice screws, or other pro between you, and if the snow conditions don’t allow reliable self-arrests, roping together adds risk for the entire team. Don’t let the presence of the rope trick you: You may be safer soloing.
REAL LIFE: In 1981, a team of seven Japanese climbers, roped together, was descending from an unsuccessful attempt on Gongga Shan (7,590 meters) in China. When one member slipped, all seven fell to their deaths.
42. No plan for a whiteout
Weather changes fast, and straightforward terrain gets tricky when you can’t see. Always have a plan for retreating safely when visibility drops to nil. Take back bearings with your compass. Leave wands to mark your route. Use a GPS to mark waypoints.
On big, snowy mountains, cold temps can suppress thirst, but being hydrated helps you perform better and acclimatize quicker. Drink before you get thirsty, drink often, and drink copiously.
44. No emergency sunglasses
Snow blindness is temporary, but it can paralyze your ability to function, and it hurts like a bitch.
45. Leaving sunblock off the underside of your nose
Life on the glacier is all about reflected sunlight. Don’t forget to slather up between your nostrils.
DO: Carry a map. A forced change in plans often will drop you into a different drainage than where you started, and the return journey may not be as simple as you think.
AID CLIMBING MISTAKES
46. Not tying in below your jumars
What’s worse than having your piece pull when you test it? Having that piece smack you in the face. Turn the top of your helmet toward that mank.
48. Bringing too much (or not enough) water
Nothing slows a multi-day climb like hoisting a swimming pool in your haul bag. On the other hand, you’ll also be slowed to a crawl by becoming so dehydrated that you start to consider drinking your own urine. Carefully estimate water needs based on the sunniness of the route, season, and water content of other foods that you’re bringing (soup for dinner = less water). Three quarts of water per person per day is a good rule of thumb in the late fall and early spring; a gallon or more may be appropriate on sunny walls in August.
49. Passing another party when you’re not actually faster
Passing a slower party is copacetic, with their consent. But make sure they’re actually slower, and not just grappling with a crux that would slow your team just as much. If you crowd a team above you only to stall out after passing, admit your mistake and offer the other team its original front position.
50. “Soiling” your partner
Don’t allow urine or excrement to touch your partner, your rope, or any of your gear. Plan ahead, account for wind, and find a stable spot. Most “emergencies” are easily avoided by heeding the warning signs, just as you would at home or at work.
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